December 12, 1870 | Joseph H. Rainey
Joseph H. Rainey representing South Carolina became the first African American to be sworn into United States House of Representatives on December 12, 1870. He also became the first African American to preside over the United States House of Representatives. Rainey served as a Republican representing South Carolina’s 1st District from December 12, 1870 until March 3, 1879. He was born on June 21, 1832 in Georgetown, South Carolina as a slave. His father was allowed to work as a barber while still in slavery. He gave a percentage of his earnings to his owner and was able to save enough to eventually buy his freedom and that of his family.
Rainey following in the footsteps of his father and also became a barber. He was forced to work for the Confederate army during the beginning of the civil war until he and his family escaped to Bermuda. Rainey established a very successful trade as a barber in Bermuda. They returned to South Carolina after the civil war and settled in Charleston. It was there that he became very active in politics and was eventually elected to the South Carolina State Senate in 1870. Within a year of that election, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives in a special election for a seat vacancy. Rainey died on August 1, 1887 in Georgetown, South Carolina at age 55.